Windows server 2012 essentials activation key free
Microsoft Windows Server Blog. All of this led to our decision to offer yet another version of on-premises server for small businesses — Windows Server Essentials. This edition will be released along with the other editions of Windows Server later this year. There is a strong possibility that this could be the last edition of Windows Server Essentials.
September 3, With Windows Server , the Essentials edition is available to purchase from OEMs only, however there is no specific installation media. Instead, an Essentials edition product key is used to activate the Standard edition of Windows Server and means you get all the same features.
Download Center. August 18, Microsoft — via Blog Archive. Archived from the original on February 25, February 20, August 17, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved March 26, May 1, April 27, July 11, Retrieved September 2, Microsoft Windows. Components History Timeline Criticism. Windows 1. Software and hardware manufacturers may access their error reports using Microsoft\’s Winqual program. This allows distributing solutions as well as collecting extra information from customers such as reproducing the steps they took before the crash and providing them with support links.
On old versions of Windows, when users upgrade a device driver, there is a chance the new driver is less stable, efficient or functional than the original. Reinstalling the old driver can be a major hassle and to avoid this quandary, Windows XP keeps a copy of an old driver when a new version is installed.
If the new driver has problems, the user can return to the previous version. This feature does not work with printer drivers. As Windows XP merged the consumer and enterprise versions of Windows, it needed to support applications developed for the popular and consumer-oriented Windows 9x platform on the Windows NT kernel. Microsoft addressed this by improving compatibility with application-specific tweaks and shims and by providing tools such as the Application Compatibility Toolkit AppCompat or ACT  to allow users to apply and automate these tweaks and shims on their own applications.
Windows Movie Maker 2 introduced numerous new transitions, effects, titles and credits, a task pane, resizable preview window with dimensions, improved capture and export options, an AutoMovie feature, saving the final video back to tape and custom WMV export profiles. Windows XP includes advances in Broadcast Driver Architecture for receiving and capturing analog and digital TV broadcasts complete with signal demodulation, tuning, software de-multiplexing, electronic program guide store, IP data broadcasting etc.
VMR-7 can mix multiple streams and graphics with alpha blending, allowing applications to draw text such as closed captions and graphics such as channel logos or UI buttons over the video without flickering, and support compositing to implement custom effects and transitions. VMR-7 features a \”windowless mode\” for applications to easily host video playback within any window and a \”renderless playback mode\” for applications to access the composited image before it is rendered.
DirectShow 8 includes AVStream , a multimedia class driver for video-only and audio-video kernel streaming. The Scanner and Camera Wizard based on Windows Image Acquisition and other common dialogs for WIA devices have been improved in Windows XP to show the media information and metadata, rotate images as necessary, categorize them into subfolders, capture images and video in case of a still or video camera, crop and scan images to a single or multi-page TIFF in case of a scanner.
The Picture Transfer Protocol PTP implementation has been updated to support all mandatory and optional commands in the PTP standard, and object tree support which allows secondary files associated with a parent file to be grouped and transferred concurrently.
Windows XP includes technology from Roxio which allows users to directly burn files to a compact disc through Windows Explorer. Previously, end users had to install CD burning software. Windows XP\’s CD burning support does not do disk-to-disk copying or disk images , although the API can be used programmatically to do these tasks.
Audio CDs are burnt using track-at-once mode. WSF has been introduced besides. VBS and. JS which can store in an XML node in the same file, extra information besides script code, such as digital signature blocks, runtime directives or instructions to import external code.
The WshShell object now supports a \’CurrentDirectory\’ read-write method. Scripts can now be digitally signed as well as verified programmatically using the Scripting. Signer object in a script itself, provided a valid certificate is present on the system. WSH can thus decide whether or not to execute the script after verification. The signature block is stored in a commented section in the script file for backward compatibility with older WSH versions.
By using Software Restriction Policies supported in Windows XP and later, a system may also be configured to execute only those scripts which have been digitally signed, thus preventing the execution of untrusted scripts. Local scripts can also run on a remote machine with the new WScript. The remote script can be monitored by using the Status property.
WSH 5. In earlier versions of Windows Script, to use arguments, one had to access the WshArguments collection object which could not be created externally and required that the person running the script know the order of the arguments, and their syntax and values. Named arguments are grouped in the Named collection object and have the usual methods like Item, Count, Length as well as an Exists method.
Password COM automation object, implemented in the scriptpw. It is built on Terminal Services technology RDP , and is similar to \”Remote Assistance\”, but allows remote users to access local resources such as printers. There are several resources that users can redirect from the remote server machine to the local client, depending upon the capabilities of the client software used.
For instance, \”File System Redirection\” allows users to use their local files on a remote desktop within the terminal session, while \”Printer Redirection\” allows users to use their local printer within the terminal session as they would with a locally or network shared printer. The clipboard can also be shared between the remote computer and the local computer.
Remote Assistance allows sending invitations to the support person by email, Windows Messenger or saving the invitation as a file. The computer can be controlled by both, the support person connecting remotely as well as the one sending the invitation. Chat, audio-video conversations and file transfer are available.
Windows XP introduces Fast User Switching  and a more end user friendly Welcome Screen with a user account picture which replaces the Classic logon prompt. Fast user switching allows another user to log in and use the system without having to log out the previous user and quit his or her applications. Previously on both Windows Me and Windows only one user at a time could be logged in except through Terminal Services , which was a serious drawback to multi-user activity. Fast User Switching, like Terminal Services, requires more system resources than having only a single user logged in at a time and although more than one user can be logged in, only one user can be actively using their account at a time.
This feature is not available when the Welcome Screen is turned off, such as when joined to a Windows Server Domain or with Novell Client installed. Windows Installer 2. Windows Disk Defragmenter was updated to alleviate several restrictions. The defragmenter supports NTFS volumes with cluster sizes larger than 4 kilobytes. A command-line tool, defrag. Users who are members of the Power Users group can schedule defragmentation. It has been updated to display process names longer than 15 characters in length on the Processes tab, which used to be truncated in Windows The Delete key can also be used to terminate processes on the Processes tab.
A new Networking tab shows statistics relating to each of the network adapters present in the computer. By default the adapter name, percentage of network utilization, link speed and state of the network adapter are shown, along with a chart of recent activity. More options can be shown by choosing Select columns The Users tab shows all users that currently have a session on the computer.
On server computers there may be several users connected to the computer using Terminal Services. There may also be multiple users logged onto the computer at one time using Fast User Switching.
Users can be disconnected or logged off from this tab. Holding down Ctrl while clicking New Task opens a command prompt.
User -type certificates can be auto-enrolled and renewed. Root CA certificates now also auto-update via Microsoft Update. Windows XP can enroll version 2 certificate templates which have many configurable attributes. There are also numerous improvements to certificate status checking, chain building and revocation checking, path validation and discovery. Windows XP includes several Encrypting File System improvements  The most notable improvement is that multiple user accounts can share access to encrypted files on a file-by-file basis.
A Details button in the Advanced file attributes dialog in the file\’s properties allows adding or removing additional users who can access the EFS-encrypted file, and viewing the certificate thumbprint and the Data Recovery Agent account. EFS certificates are autoenrolled in the CA and there is support for revocation checking on certificates used when sharing encrypted files. Unlike Windows , there is no default local Data Recovery Agent and no requirement to have one, although a self-signed certificate for the recovery agent can be generated using cipher.
Windows XP can also encrypt files on a remote server with NTFS if the server is trusted for delegation in Active Directory and the user\’s certificate and private key are loaded in the local profile on the server.
If a roaming user profile is used, it will be copied locally. The command line utilities cipher , copy and xcopy have been updated in Windows XP. For faster cache validation, the time for how long the user session key and certificate chain are cached can be adjusted.
This disk can be used to reset the password using the Password Reset Wizard from the logon screen. The user\’s RSA private key is backed up using an offline public key whose matching private key is stored in one of two places: the password reset disk if the computer is not a member of a domain or in Active Directory if it is a member of a domain.
An attacker who can authenticate to Windows XP as LocalSystem still does not have access to a decryption key stored on the PC\’s hard drive. If the user changes the password back to the original password, EFS encrypted files can be recovered. Windows XP prompts for credentials upon authentication errors and allows saving those that use Integrated Windows Authentication to a secure roaming keyring store protected by the Data Protection API.
Saved credentials can be managed from the Stored User Names and Passwords item in the User accounts control panel. If a certificate authority is present, then users can a select an X. When that same resource is accessed again, the saved credentials will be used. Windows XP introduces Software Restriction Policies and the Safer API   By use of Software Restriction Policies, a system may be configured to execute or install only those applications and scripts which have been digitally signed or have a certain trust level, thus preventing the execution of untrusted programs and scripts.
Administrators can define a default rule using the Local Security Policy snap-in, and exceptions to that rule. The types of rules include: Hash Rule , Path Rule , Certificate Rule and Zone Rule which identify a file by its hash, path, software publisher\’s certificate or Internet Explorer-zone respectively.
For example, an ActiveX control can be restricted to run only for a particular domain by specifying a certificate rule-based software restriction policy. Windows wireless support did not support seamless roaming and auto-configuration. Windows XP\’s Wireless Zero Configuration service supports automatic wireless network configuration with re-authentication when necessary thus providing seamless roaming capability and setting the preferred order of connections.
In the absence of a wireless access point, Windows XP can set up an ad hoc wireless network. It has a Quality of Service Packet Scheduler component.
Internet Connection Sharing also includes a local DNS resolver in Windows XP to provide name resolution for all network clients on the home network, including non-Windows-based network devices. When multiple applications are accessing the internet simultaneously without any QoS and the connection isn\’t fast enough, the TCP receive window size is set to the full window of data in transit that the first application uses in the connection until a steady state is reached.
Subsequent connections made by other applications will take much longer to reach an optimal window size and the transmission rate of the second or third application will always be lower than that of the application that established the connection first.
On such slow links, the QoS component in Windows XP automatically enables a Deficit round robin scheduling scheme, which creates a separate queue for each application and services these queues in a round-robin fashion. IPv6 has to be installed and configured from the command line using the netsh interface ipv6 context as there is no GUI support. After the network interface\’s link-local address is assigned, stateless autoconfiguration for local and global addresses can be performed by Windows XP.
Static IPv6 addresses can be assigned if there is no IPv6 router on the local link. Transition mechanisms such as manually configured tunnels and 6to4 can be set up.
Privacy extensions are enabled and used by default. Teredo also helps traverse cone and restricted NATs. Teredo host-specific relay is enabled when a global IPv6 address has been assigned, otherwise Teredo client functionality is enabled. An open source DHCPv6 implementation called Dibbler is available,  although stateless autoconfiguration largely makes it unnecessary. Windows XP includes the Background Intelligent Transfer Service, a Windows service that facilitates prioritized, throttled, and asynchronous transfer of files between machines using idle network bandwidth.
BITS constantly monitors network traffic for any increase or decrease in network traffic and throttles its own transfers to ensure that other foreground applications such as a web browser get the bandwidth they need. BITS also supports resuming transfers in case of disruptions. BITS version 1. From version 1. Windows XP components such as Windows Update use BITS to download updates so only idle bandwidth is used to download updates and downloading can be resumed in case network connectivity is interrupted.
BITS uses a queue to manage file transfers and downloads files on behalf of requesting applications asynchronously, i. The transfer will continue in the background as long as the network connection is there and the job owner is logged in.
If a network application begins to consume more bandwidth, BITS decreases its transfer rate to preserve the user\’s interactive experience, except for Foreground priority downloads. Windows XP has a Fax Console to manage incoming, outgoing and archived faxes and settings.
The Fax Monitor only appears in the notification area when a fax transmission or reception is in progress. If manual reception of faxes is enabled, it appears upon an incoming fax call. It operates over IPv6. PNRP : This provides dynamic name publication and resolution of names to endpoints. PNRP is a distributed name resolution protocol allowing Internet hosts to publish \”peer names\” and corresponding IPv6 addresses and optionally other information. Other hosts can then resolve the peer name, retrieve the corresponding addresses and other information, and establish peer-to-peer connections.
With PNRP, peer names are composed of an \”authority\” and a \”qualifier\”. The authority is identified by a secure hash of an associated public key , or by a place-holder the number zero if the peer name is \”unsecured\”. The qualifier is a string , allowing an authority to have different peer names for different services. If a peer name is secure, the PNRP name records are signed by the publishing authority, and can be verified using its public key.
Unsecured peer names can be published by anybody, without possible verification. Multiple entities can publish the same peer name. For example, if a peer name is associated with a group, any group member can publish addresses for the peer name. Peer names are published and resolved within a specified scope.
The scope can be a local link, a site e. Each peer in the overlay network corresponds to a node in the graph. Nodes are resolved to addresses using PNRP. All the nodes in a graph share book-keeping information responsible for the functioning of the network as a whole. For example, in a distributed resource management network, which node has what resource needs to be shared.
Such information is shared as Records , which are flooded to all the peers in a graph. Each peer stores the Record to a local database. A Record consists of a header and a body. The body contains data specific to the application that is using the API; the header contains metadata to describe the data in the body as name-value pairs serialized using XML , in addition to author and version information.
It can also contain an index of the body data, for fast searching. A node can connect to other nodes directly as well, for communication that need not be shared with the entire Graph. A Group can be shared by multiple applications, unlike a Graph. All Records exchanged are digitally signed.
Peers must be invited into a Group. The invitation contains the GMC that enables it to join the group. Windows XP introduces a more simplified form of sharing files with local users in a multi-user environment and over the network called Simple File Sharing.
By checking the Make this folder private option in its Properties, local Administrators are also denied permissions to the My Documents folder. Simple File Sharing disables granular local and network sharing permissions.
It shares the item with the Everyone group on the network with read only or write access, without asking for a password but forcing Guest user permissions. This newer client works as a system service at the network-redirector level immediately above the file-system , allowing WebDAV shares to be assigned to a drive letter and used by any software, even through firewalls and NATs.
Applications can open remote files on HTTP servers, edit the file, and save the changes back to the file if the server allows.
The WebDAV mini-redirector is known to have some limitations in authentication support. The main difference is the system we\’re on is on Standard already, not Eval. We\’ll be using PowerShell, even if apparently other ways exist. From an elevated command prompt, use this command:. Then simply run this command, which is the same as the one to go from Eval Standard to Datacenter:. You must enter a valid product key to continue with the upgrade process.
It\’ll ask you to reboot. It\’s worth noting that if you\’ve used an evaluation edition to build a DC for your POC, you can\’t change the edition. You can also use this command to change your edition between other types, such as Datacenter or Essentials.
Subscribe to 4sysops newsletter! By simply running a few PowerShell commands, you can check the currently installed edition, see which version you can upgrade to, and also run the actual upgrade PowerShell command. Want to write for 4sysops? We are looking for new authors. To disable Windows search highlights in corporate environment makes sense because this new Windows feature only distract users Recently, it appears that Chrome and Edge notifications are being hijacked into pushing people onto fake antivirus websites, such While the second generation of the Linux subsystem has been on board with Windows 10 since version 20H1, Windows Microsoft Deployment Toolkit MDT has long been a popular free deployment solution, allowing organizations to roll out image-based installations Search highlights display a colorful icon in the Windows 10 search bar.
If you hover the mouse over the A comment on the previous post about deploying Chrome extensions posed the question of whether PowerShell could be used The widgets in Windows 11 are essentially the successors of News and interests, known from Windows Like these, At the same time, Microsoft\’s operating systems already include a number of fonts. However, if users want to install their own fonts on In this article, you will learn how to use PsExec, a great command line utility from Microsoft\’s Sysinternals PsTools Many businesses use Microsoft Intune as part of Endpoint Manager for remote client provisioning, configuration, and management.
However, until Before creating a \”golden\” image of Windows 10 for deployment purposes, most organizations tweak many of the default configuration Microsoft offers several options if you want to remove installed programs by using the command line or a script Microsoft Power Automate for The new remote help tool for Intune and Microsoft Endpoint Manager allows you to connect to user devices using For a long time, roaming profiles and folder redirection were the standard means under Windows for making user files The new Windows Update for Business deployment service falls in the portfolio of services offered in the Microsoft Windows Compared to Windows 10, Windows 11 has very stringent install and upgrade requirements that must be met.
Microsoft Windows version history – Wikipedia.Windows server 2012 essentials activation key free
Compute Engine provides public images with Windows Server that you can use to create instances. For more general information about Windows Server instances and Windows applications that you can run on Compute Engine, see Windows on Compute Engine. Windows Server images are premium images, and using them results in additional charges. To create an instance with Windows Server, specify the image family for the specific version of Windows that you need.
For a list of the available image families, see public images. If you plan on using Microsoft Active Directory AD with your new instance, make sure the instance name is no longer than 15 characters, to meet the stated maximum name length restrictions of the system. As a result, you might encounter the following error when trying to sign in as a domain user: The Security Database on the Server does not have a Computer Account for this Workstation Trust Relationship.
This section describes how to create a Windows Server instance that has an external IP address. Your VPC network must be configured to allow access to kms. Go to Create an instance. To create a Shielded VM Windows instance, do the following:. Optionally, to change the VM\’s Shielded VM settings, expand the the Networking, disks, security, management, sole tenancy section. Then, do the following:. If you want to turn off integrity monitoring, clear the Turn on Integrity Monitoring checkbox.
For more information, see Integrity monitoring. Use the compute images list command to see a list of available Windows Server images:. Use the compute instances create command to create a new instance and specify the image family for one of the Windows Server public images.
If you chose an image that supports Shielded VM, you can optionally change the instance\’s Shielded VM settings using one of the following flags:. Integrity monitoring lets you monitor the boot integrity of your Shielded VM instances using Cloud Monitoring. To create an instance with the API, include the initializeParams property in your instance creation request and specify a Windows image.
For example, your request body might look like the following:. If you chose an image that supports Shielded VM , you can optionally change the instance\’s Shielded VM settings by using the following boolean request body items:. Integrity monitoring lets you monitor and verify the runtime boot integrity of your Shielded VM instances using Cloud Monitoring reports.
For more information about creating an instance, read the instances. Before you can create a Windows Server instance that has only an internal IP address, you must verify or configure routes and firewall rules in your VPC network to allow access to kms. When you create a new instance by using the gcloud CLI, you can use the –no-address flag to ensure that it is not assigned an external IP address:.
Because this instance does not have an external IP address, you cannot connect to it directly over the Internet. For Windows activation and renewal, your VPC network must meet the following routing and firewall rule requirements. Your Windows instances must be able to reach kms. You can use the default route in your VPC network to route traffic directly to kms. If you remove this route, or if you plan to do so in the future, create a custom static route with destination Either the default route or a custom static route as described above will permit instances with external IP addresses to reach kms.
That IP address, The implied allow egress firewall rule allows instances to make requests and receive established responses.
Unless you have created custom firewall rules that deny egress, your Windows instances can communicate with kms. If you customize firewall rules, it\’s a good practice to create a high priority egress allow rule that explicitly permits communication with This way, as you modify your firewall rules, you won\’t accidentally disable Windows activation. The following gcloud examples creates the recommended allow egress rule with the highest priority:.
Windows instances experience a longer startup time because of the sysprep process. The console might show that the instance is running even if the sysprep process is not yet complete. To check if your instance has successfully started and is ready to be used, check the serial port output with the following command:.
If you have Windows instances with image versions v and later or with agent version 4. The config file is in INI format, and is located at the following path:. The system overrides configuration settings in the following order of priority from the highest priority to the lowest priority:. For example, if you can enable the accountManager feature in a config file, your instance ignores parameters that you set in custom metadata to disable that feature. One benefit of setting these parameters in the config file is that those settings persist when you create a custom image for a Windows Server instance.
Instance-level custom metadata does not persist beyond the life of the instance. Disabling the account manager also disables resetting passwords with the Google Cloud CLI or the console:. In custom metadata, set disable-account-manager to true in metadata. In custom metadata, set disable-address-manager to true in metadata.
In custom metadata, set enable-wsfc to true in metadata. Specify the IP address of the internal load balancing instance for failover clustering. This is an advanced configuration that you don\’t need to set for a dedicated failover cluster. Normally you use an instance of internal load balancing to direct network traffic to one VM instance at a time.
If you add a second instance of internal load balancing that uses the failover clustering VM instances as part of a load-balanced website backend, you would have two internal load balancing IP addresses. If failover clustering uses This disambiguates which address is in use for the cluster.
In custom metadata, set wsfc-addrs to a Set the failover clustering agent port. The default port is You need to specify a port only when you want to use a different port:. In custom metadata, set wsfc-agent-port to the port number. Older images do not use a config file and only have a subset of features. Image versions between version v and version v , or Windows agent version between 3.
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Aug 05, · Console. To create a basic Windows VM: In the Google Cloud console, go to the Create an instance page.. Go to Create an instance. For Boot disk, select Change, and do the following. On the Public images tab, choose a Windows Server operating system.; Click Select.; To create the VM, click Create.. To create a Shielded VM Windows instance, do the . The first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version , released on November 20, , achieved little popularity. The project was briefly codenamed \”Interface Manager\” before the windowing system was implemented—contrary to popular belief that it was the original name for Windows and Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company . Windows Server Essentials R2; Hyper-V Server. Hyper-V Server ; Hyper-V Server ; Hyper-V Server R2; Hyper-V Server ; Windows Admin Center; Windows Virtual Hardware Lab Kit (VHLK) From signing up for a free trial to exploring technical documentation, virtual labs, and demos, the Evaluation Center has the tools you need.